Thursday, July 21, 2011

560 CS A similar gas is used by the Israelis against the Palestinians.

Some of the tear gas cannisters used on Saturday 9-July-2011 and Sunday 25 Nov. 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, bore the marking 560 CS.
There are photos of these cartridges.

A similar gas is used by the Israelis against the Palestinians.

This gas is potentially lethal.

This article is of interest.
The Journal of the American Medical Association
August 4, 1989
Vol. 262, No. 5
From the Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Dr. Hu), and Department of Internal Medicine (Dr. Epstein), Harvard Medical School, and the Department of Epidemiology (Dr. Hu) and Occupations Health Program (Dr. Kelsey), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass; Physicians for Human Rights Somerville, Mass (Dr. Fine); Department of Interns Medicine, Cambridge (Mass) Hospital (Dr. Epstein) American Medical Student Association, Preston, VA. (Dr. Reynolds); Duke University Medical School, Raleigh NC (Dr. Reynolds); and Graduate School of Public Health Sciences, State University of New York-Albany (Dr. Walker).

Tear gas has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian crowds and subduing barricaded criminals.
The most widely used forms of tear gas have been o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS) and (-chloroacetophenone (CN).
Proponents of their use claim that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequences.
The use of tear gas in recent situations of civil unrest, however, demonstrates that exposure to the weapon is difficult to control and indiscriminate and the weapon is often not used correctly.
Severe traumatic injury from exploding tear gas bombs as well as lethal toxic injury have been documented.
Moreover, available toxicological data are deficient as to the potential of tear gas agents to cause long-term pulmonary, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects. Published and recent unpublished in vitro tests have shown o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile to be both clastogenic and mutagenic.
Sadly, the nature of its use renders analytic epidemiologic investigation of exposed persons difficult.
In 1969, eighty countries voted to include tear gas agents among chemical weapons banned under the Geneva Protocol.
There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances.
Tear gas is a weapon that has become familiar to the world. Hardly a week goes by without press reports of tear gas being used in a public setting, typically the dispersal of demonstrators or the subdual of a barricaded criminal. Recent years have seen the use of large amounts of tear gas in several countries, including Chile; Panama; South Korea; and the Gaza Strip and West Bank, Israel.
Tear gas is actually the common term for a family of chemical compounds that have been otherwise referred to as “harassing agents” because of their ability to cause temporary disablement.
Some 15 chemicals have been used worldwide as tear gas agents.
Four of these- chloroacetophenone (CN), o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS), 10-chloro-5, l0-dihydrophenarsazine, and (-bromo-(-tolunitrile- have been used extensively.(1) In the United States, Britain, and Europe, CN and CS have been employed most widely. o-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, in particular, is a weapon that has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian populations during disturbances.
The widespread use of tear gas agents naturally raises the question of their safety.
Relatively little, however, has appeared in the mainstream medical literature regarding their toxicology. In general, authors of review articles have averred that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequence.
Much emphasis has been given to the findings of the Himsworth Report, the results of an inquiry by a committee appointed by the British Secretary of State for the Home Department following the use of CS in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, in 1969.
In addition to investigating the use of CS in Londonderry, the committee reviewed a wide range of scientific data. Its main conclusion was that while exposure to CS can be lethal, most likely in the form of toxic pulmonary damage leading to pulmonary edema, such an occurrence would only be at concentrations that were several hundred times greater than the exposure dosage that produces intolerable symptoms.
Many questions remain, however. Epidemiologic inquiry following the use of tear gas under actual field conditions has been almost completely absent.

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